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From cysts to size, here's what you need to know about keeping your breasts healthy.
1. All lumps are not created equal
If you've ever felt a lump or bump in your breast, you'll know the sick feeling it can instantly cause in the pit of your stomach. But don't panic yet: There are lots of things it could be besides breast cancer. "Very often I will see premenopausal women with palpable breast masses that turn out to be cysts or benign [noncancerous] lumps called fibroadenomas," says Melinda Wu, a family physician with Women's College Hospital in Toronto who has worked at both the Henrietta Banting Breast Centre and the Princess Margaret Hospital Breast Clinic.
If the lump is suspicious, your doctor will typically do a clinical exam and order a diagnostic mammogram and ultrasound. Sometimes lumps require biopsies, but 80 percent of biopsied lumps turn out to be benign, explains Wu. That doesn't mean you shouldn't be mindful; get to know your breasts and have any lumps checked out. According to the Breast Cancer Society of Canada, breast cancer affects one in nine women, with 23,800 women estimated to be diagnosed in 2013. And the risk increases as you age.
2. Get the 411 on cysts
Breast cysts (fluid-filled sacs) are exceedingly common in premenopausal women in the 35 to 50 age group. While cysts aren't linked to an increased risk of breast cancer, if you have a complicated cyst (one that has a solid component to it), your doc should monitor it using ultrasounds to ensure the size remains stable – especially if you are postmenopausal. Also, remember that cysts tend to grow in size and tenderness leading up to your period as your hormone levels fluctuate.
3. Breast pain is usually normal
"Lots of women come to us about breast pain, and we often don't know what causes it," says Wu. "But we do know that breast pain is not a marker for breast cancer." For some people, pain is caused by deep breast cysts. Of course, if the pain is persistent, you should see your family doctor to make sure it's nothing more serious. Lifestyle changes such as limiting alcohol, increasing water intake, exercising regularly and wearing a properly fitted bra can all help with breast pain, says Wu.
4. Your breasts will change with age
To add insult to aging, as you get older your breasts become less dense and more fatty. But there's a positive side to this: The reduced density makes it easier to spot any problems on a mammogram. "The reasons we generally don't do mammograms in young women are because the incidence of breast cancer is very low in this population and because breast tissue is dense and mostly glandular as it's preparing for breast-feeding," explains Dr. May Lynn Quan, an associate professor of surgery and oncology at the University of Calgary and the surgical lead for the Alberta Health Services Calgary Breast Health Program. Mammograms are X-rays, she says, so they pick up things that are dense, such as bones, glandular tissue and tumours.
When should you start getting screened? For the average woman without a family history or risk factors for breast cancer, Wu recommends having a mammogram every two years, starting at age 50; at 40, have a discussion with your family doctor about breast screening. (Risk factors include having certain kinds of noncancerous breast lumps, starting menstruation before age 12 and menopause later than 55, smoking, drinking excessively, and never having children or having children after 30.) Take note: It's important to go to the same mammogram centre each time so your results can be compared with your previous screenings, says Wu.
5. You can't really change your breast size
Despite Frenchy's comical attempts in Grease to make her breasts bigger with exercise, it doesn't work that way. Breasts are not muscular; they're organs with connective tissue that fits together to make their infrastructure. When you do muscle training, you are targeting your pectoral muscles, which lie underneath your breasts. Your natural breast size is not based purely on your mom's bustiness, says Wu. There is a reliable breast size pattern, but it doesn't necessarily come from one side of the family, she says. Multiple factors affect how big your breasts become (not to mention weight fluctuations and pregnancy, which can make them more pendulous and elongated). And if your breasts aren't perfectly symmetrical, you're definitely not alone. "It's just how you are made," says Wu. It's common to have one breast or nipple that is larger or otherwise different; it's only an issue if the asymmetry has developed recently. If one of your breasts is hot or swollen, see a doctor ASAP.
6. Your breasts have a tail
OK, so they don't have an actual tail, but the tissue that leads into your armpit in a teardrop shape is called a "breast tail." Women tend to have a lot of dense tissue in the upper outer quadrants of their breasts. It carries up into the armpits, near some of the lymph nodes, which are a separate entity from your breasts. However, just as the lymph nodes in your neck can swell when you have a sore throat, the ones in your armpits can swell if there is a problem with your breasts, says Wu, so pay attention to any swelling there that doesn't dissipate.
7. You may have a third nipple
All joking aside, doctors do see this from time to time. These extramammary nipples are not uncommon and may or may not be connected to your milk ducts. You may not even know you have one, because it won't necessarily look like a nipple; people often think it's a mole, explains Wu. Picture the milk line on the underside of a cat; you can look for them in the same area on your own torso, as well as in your armpits.
8. Cancer is not all in your genes
While Angelina Jolie may have had a high breast cancer risk due to the BRCA1 gene, "most women who walk through my door have no risk factors besides being a woman and being postmenopausal," says Quan. "Twenty-five percent of women will have a family history of some sort, and only five to 10 percent of women will have breast cancer because of a gene mutation." If multiple people on both sides of your family have had breast cancer, you can seek counselling from a genetic specialist to figure out your next steps.
9. Your weight affects your overall breast health
Staying in shape isn't just about fitting into your skinny jeans. Maintaining a low amount of abdominal fat is key for cancer survivors and women who are at high risk for developing breast cancer, says Wu. "People tend to make estrogen from abdominal fat, and the ovaries stop producing estrogen through menopause," says Wu. "A higher weight means more estrogen, which can lead to more lumps and bumps." She recommends decreasing your overall BMI, and Quan agrees. "For women who have had cancer, the one thing we know is that weight gain has been associated with higher rates of recurrence," she says. If that's not motivation to hit the gym, we don't know what is.
10. Nipples can be a key breast health indicator
Think of your breasts like inverted trees, says Quan, with multiple ducts branching from your nipples. The key function of your breasts is to make milk, so some discharge can be normal. If you have discharge coming out of only one duct in one breast, it means it's coming from a specific duct on the tree – which can be concerning, says Quan. "We worry when nipple discharge is only on one side, if it's bloody, if it happens on its own (without squeezing), if there is a family history of breast cancer or if there's a palpable lump," says Wu. Also, if one nipple suddenly inverts or you have a rash around the areola, get it checked out, as these can be indicative of cancer.
Lemony Red Pepper and Asparagus Pasta Salad
Photography by Joe Kim Image by: Lemony Red Pepper and Asparagus Pasta Salad <br> Photography by Joe Kim
Planning a picnic or family barbecue anytime soon? Give yourself one less thing to worry about and go for one of our easy pasta salad recipes. It's sure to be a hit!
Pasta salads are great to make ahead, and are absolute tops for large groups. They also take the cake for being an extremely versatile dish – with a host of added ingredients, toppings and dressings, simple pasta salads can go from humble side to star entrée in no time.
We asked Test Kitchen food specialist Amanda Barnier to share some top tips for preparing pasta salads, and why they're a crowd favourite. Here's what she had to share:
Pasta salads: the perfect make-ahead dish
"Pasta salads can easily be prepped in advance and can feed a crowd with little effort," Amanda says. "It can be made in advance and cooled immediately after cooking."
One important tip to remember, she adds, is to "add dressing the day it's being served, because it will quickly absorb the dressing."
Pasta salad favourites
"I like using cheese filled tortellini for a hearty salad. Soba and rice noodles are great with Asian dressings, whole grain and coloured pastas," Amanda says.
How to store pasta salads
"Keep salads well wrapped and refrigerated," she says. "Salad has the same storage life as its ingredients. Seafood is best eaten within 2 days, and chicken (within) 2 to 3 days. If traveling, be sure to store pasta salads in coolers packed with lots of ice."
"Proteins should not be within 4 C and 60 C for longer than a four hour period," she adds.
The long and short of it: best pasta shapes
"Short shapes are best with vinaigrettes and creamy dressings, and chunky ingredients such as chopped vegetables and beans," Amanda says.
"Long pasta shapes are better used with thinly sliced vegetables, proteins, herbs, spices and vinaigrettes."
Tips for making pasta salad
"If making a pasta salad in advance, rinse with cold water to stop the cooking process and drain well," she advises. "Add dressing just prior to serving. Pasta quickly absorbs liquids; if the dressing is added too soon, the pasta will absorb it."
So whether you prefer chunky pasta salads with a cool, creamy dressing perfect for summer picnics, or entrée-worthy pasta salads with long rice noodles and a tangy vinaigrette, you're sure to find a new favourite with from our collection.
Easy pasta salad recipes:
Lemony Red Pepper and Asparagus Pasta Salad
A bright vinaigrette makes this pasta salad the ultimate dish to serve at any summer party.
Photography by Joe Kim
Mediterranean Orzo Salad
This salad highlights many fresh flavours of the Mediterranean and is at its best when made with good-quality olive oil.
Photography by Jeff Coulson
The Best Macaroni Salad
This is a great keeper salad and perfect for a picnic or BBQ. Just make sure you pack it with plenty of ice packs to keep it nice and cold, both during transportation and at the table.
Photography by Annabelle Waugh
Chicken, Broccoli and Bocconcini Pasta Salad
Make this pasta salad for the whole family—the kids will love the mild dressing and round bocconcini cheese, while the adults will appreciate it as a light alternative to a sandwich.
Photography by Jeff Coulson
More great pasta salad recipes:
Spinach and Sun-Dried Tomato Pasta Salad
This salad is simple to assemble for a quick family meal.
Warm Spinach and Ham Pasta Salad
Dressed with Dijon mustard and white wine vinegar, this penne pasta salad is a winner topped with goat cheese and cherry tomatoes.
Winter Vegetable Pasta Salad
Cook everything together in one pot for this easy warm salad.
Pea, Pepper and Pasta Salad
This make-ahead salad is perfect for toting to a potluck barbecue or picnic. Toss the salad with the dressing right before serving so the peas stay bright green.
Summer Pasta Salad
Serve this light summery salad with crispy, homemade Parmesan Breadsticks.
Mediterranean Fusilli Salad
Fresh basil, hearty beans, piquant sun-dried tomatoes and al dente pasta make the perfect summer salad.
Warm Roasted Red Pepper Pasta Salad
The dressing lends a taste of summer any time of year. The red peppers provide vitamins A and C and potassium. Quick and easy to make, this salad is perfect to take to a last-minute potluck or picnic.
Grilled Sausage, Pepper and Bocconcini Pasta Salad
This delicious pasta salad is made with tasty Italian sausage and lots of colourful peppers.
Bow-Tie Pasta Salad
This easy, colourful salad has the sunny fresh tastes of Greece.
Tuna Pasta Salad
Using tuna packed in both oil and broth means you'll need less oil in the dressing.
Salmon Pasta Salad
Start with melon wedges to whet your appetite for this quick and light dinner.
Grilled Vegetable Pasta Salad
Grilled market-fresh veggies meet marinated olives and artichokes in this healthy dish made with whole wheat rotini. So chock full with taste and texture, carnivores won't complain about this vegetarian dish.
Party Parmesan Pasta Salad
Try this hearty salad studded with salami, olives, tiny tomatoes, roasted pepper and fresh basil.
Smoked Salmon Pasta Salad
This easy tasty pasta salad is loaded with calcium. Omit the banana peppers if your child is not a fan of hot food.
Deli Pasta Salad
Add 1-1/4 cups (300 mL) extra pasta to the pot at dinner the night before to have enough for this lunchtime salad the next day.
Sirloin Steak with Green Bean Pasta Salad
Sirloin steaks paired with green beans and tomatoes make this salad a hearty entrée.
Looking for more great recipes? Try our best potato salad recipes.