Do you speak the language of flowers? Find out the different meanings of various flowers, plus get five tips on making your bouquet last.
In the Victorian era, particular flowers in certain colours were chosen to express specific feelings. Using this language of flowers – called "floriography" – a bud, bouquet or even a boutonniere delivered more than colour and scent. Here's what some familiar flowers may convey:
Apple blossom - Good things to come
Aster - Contentment
Buttercup - Childishness
Pink carnation - Gratitude
Yellow carnation - Rejection
Crocus - Gladness
Daffodil - Chivalry and respect
Daisy - Innocence and purity
Daylily - Enthusiasm
Dill - Lust
Edelweiss - Daring and courage
Forsythia - Anticipation
Gardenia - Secret love and joy
Blue hyacinth - Constancy
Ivy - Wedded love and fidelity
Lavender - Loyalty
White lily - Heavenly purity
Lily of the valley - Humility
Mint - Virtue
Orange blossom - Marriage and fertility
Palm leaves - Victory
Dark crimson rose - Mourning
Pink rose - Friendship
Red Rose - Passionate love
Snowdrop - Hope
Sunflower - Adoration
Red tulip - Declaration of love
Violet - Faithfulness
So that beautiful bouquet of dark crimson roses and white lilies surrounded by palm leaves that you just sent to your friend or love one could be telling her, "Many are mourning my victory and success within our relationship, as it's heavenly to be with you!" But – since floriography word lists vary – it could simply be saying, "Hi!"
5 best ways to make your bouquet last
1. Buy fresh flowers. Avoid flowers with any signs of mildew or mould, and look for buds that are just beginning to open. A&P, Dominion and Loblaws help out by guaranteeing their blooms will last for a specified number of days.
2. Keep it clean and lukewarm. Start with a squeaky-clean container and lukewarm water (tepid water is more readily absorbed than cold), then change the water every other day.
3. Add a floral preservative. Most bouquets come with their own packet of goodies that provide nutrients and prevent bacterial growth – all to keep the flowers fresher longer.
4. Strip and recut the stems. Remove any leaves that will be immersed, then recut the stems to encourage water uptake. Trim soft stems straight across. Cut woody stems on an angle, then smash or slit the bottom 2.5 cm (1 in). Pinch small wads of cotton from a cotton ball and stuff them into the bottom of hollow stems to help them hold moisture.
5. Show them off in a good spot. Set your floral arrangement away from drafts, direct sunlight, radiators and ripening fruits (the latter emit ethylene, which prevents buds from opening, discolours blooms and leaves, and shortens vase life).
Arrange flowers with a flourish
Photo courtesy of Paul Bradbury/237/Ocean/Corbis Image by: Photo courtesy of Paul Bradbury/237/Ocean/Corbis
|This story was originally titled "Higher Learning" in the September 2014 issue.|
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It's a classic December tale: the extra glass of eggnog, the second serving of dessert "all in the name of the holidays," and then suddenly, without warning, January materializes out of nowhere. Everyone you know and love is on a green juice cleanse, and you're wondering if you should start one, too. But hopping on a detox diet isn't the only solution; instead, why not start smaller by simply substituting the major food culprits behind that post-holiday bloat with their more nutritious counterparts? Swapping out dairy and white, processed flour from your diet can be an easy, lasting way to improve your overall health without compromising on flavour. Below, we've assembled some pantry improvement tips courtesy of one of Canada's pioneers of alternative baking for dietary restrictions and allergies, Joanna Schultz, the owner of British Columbia bakery Pikanik.
Pikanik, based out of South Surrey in BC, recently won Innovator of the Year from the Canadian Bakers Journal. Its products are all gluten free, nut free, soy free and dairy free, but what keeps Schultz's customers coming back is that her goodies all taste fantastic. She had always been a passionate baker, but she conceived of Pikanik when her daughter was diagnosed with dairy and wheat allergies. Frustrated with the limited (and often flavourless) options on the market, Schultz began experimenting with allergen-free baking. Five years later, business is still booming! Here are some tips and tricks from the expert on building a better pantry in the new year, as well as her sugar cookie recipe:
-Commercial sauces and salad dressings are often loaded down with starches, thickeners, and hard-to-identify sources of gluten. Make your own and freeze the leftover sauce for future use. Homemade salad dressings will keep for weeks in the fridge
-Swap out your usual pasta for a gluten-free blend made with quinoa and rice flour, such as GoGo Quinoa's spaghetti. (Gluten-free pasta is now widely available at your local grocery store in the gluten-free section, as well as any health food store!) The flavour and texture is comparable, but now you'll enjoy the benefits of additional protein and fibre.
-Going gluten-free doesn't mean having to give up on pancakes! You can order the Pikanik custom pancake mix from their online store here.
-There are plenty of gluten-free flour blends on the market these days, but they're each composed of different ingredients and ratios, so don't assume that they will all behave the same way when baking. Test out a few brands until you get comfortable with them.
Dairy and egg substitutions
-Your butter alternatives will depend on how the butter is being used in your recipe. If it's being melted, coconut oil works well in its place; if it's being creamed, try a soy-free margarine.
-Milk can be swapped out with rice milk, which has an unobtrusive flavour. In place of cream, try coconut cream instead.
-Egg substitutions also depend on the recipe for context. For a single egg substitution with a chewy texture (usually desired in bread baking), mix together 1 tbsp ground flax with 3 tbsp water and allow to rest for 10 minutes before using. For tender cakes and muffins, swap in a 1/4 cup mixture of fruit puree (applesauce or pureed pumpkin work well) and 1/2 tsp baking powder per egg. Non-dairy yogurt also works well in muffins; just swap in 2 Tbsp of yoghurt per egg.
PIKANIK ORANGE SUGAR COOKIES
Servings: 65 cookies
Hands on time: 20 minutes
Total time: 1 hour
For the cookies
2 cups margarine, softened at room temperature
2 cups sugar
4 tsp orange extract
1/2 cup applesauce plus 1 tsp baking powder, mixed
1 tsp salt
1 tsp baking powder
2 2/3 cups brown rice flour
1 1/3 cups tapioca starch
1 1/3 cups potato starch
3 tsp xanthan gum
zest of one small orange
For the glaze
1 cup icing sugar
1 1/2 tbsp orange juice
In a large bowl with an electric mixer, beat softened margarine and sugar until fluffy. Add orange extract and apple sauce/baking powder mixture. Add salt, baking powder, brown rice flour, tapioca starch, potato starch, xantham gum, and mix thoroughly. Let dough rest 20 minutes or refrigerate for later use.
Scoop the dough into 1-oz balls, flattened slightly. Place on a parchment-lined cookie sheet about 2 to 3 inches apart. (Make-ahead tip: freeze any dough balls you don't want to bake for future use.) Bake in an oven heated to 350F for 8-10 minutes. Cool completely.
Whisk together the icing sugar and orange juice together until smooth. Add more icing sugar and/or orange juice until you reach your desired consistency. Drizzle glaze on cooled cookies and let rest until glaze has set up.
Photo courtesy of Davina Choy Image by: Photo courtesy of Davina Choy